palisades indexes Uncategorized ¿Qué es el Hipertiroidismo ? Posibles causas y que alimentos te pueden ayudar.

¿Qué es el Hipertiroidismo ? Posibles causas y que alimentos te pueden ayudar.

Que-es-el-Hipertiroidismo-posibles-causas-y-que-alimentos-te-pueden-ayudar.

El hipertiroidismo es una afección de la hormona tiroides, según nos dicen nutricionista zaragoza .

Muchas personas nos han preguntado por la otra cara de la afección tiroidea y en este artículo te vamos a explicar lo más importante sobre el hipertiroidismo.

La hormona tiroidea produce tetrayodotironina (T4) y triyodotironina (T3), que son dos hormonas principales que controlan la forma en que las células utilizan la energía. 

Su glándula tiroides regula el metabolismo mediante la liberación de estas hormonas.

El Hipertiroidismo tiene un efecto estimulante en el cuerpo.

Cuando padeces esta enfermedad, los síntomas clásicos incluyen pérdida de peso sin saber por qué, palpitaciones, ansiedad, protrusión ocular, temblores, irritabilidad, trastornos menstruales, fatiga, intolerancia al calor y aumento del apetito, etc.

Hay una gran diferencia del hipotiroidismo hipertiroidismo sobre todo en sus efectos.

¿Qué causa el hipertiroidismo?

Una variedad de afecciones puede causar hipertiroidismo.

Pero la causa más común es a través de una enfermedad autoinmune conocida como enfermedad de Graves.  

La enfermedad de Graves es causada por la estimulación de anticuerpos del receptor de TSH o inmunoglobulinas estimulantes de la tiroides (TSI). 

La TSI activa el receptor de TSH en las células tiroideas, imitando la acción de la TSH, la última hormona pituitaria que regula los niveles de la hormona tiroidea en la sangre.

Y …

La concentración de TSH presente en la sangre es generalmente un buen indicador del estado de la tiroides, y los niveles de TSH se utilizan a menudo para diagnosticar trastornos de la tiroides. 

Normalmente, la TSH estimula la glándula tiroides para producir y liberar hormona tiroidea. 

Pero al pasar por alto todos los controles regulatorios normales, TSI hace que la glándula tiroides libere un exceso de hormona tiroidea, causando hipertiroidismo. 

¿Por qué sucede el hipertiroidismo?

Si dijimos que, en el hipotiroidismo, la tiroides producía muy poca hormona tiroidea, con el hipertiroidismo es todo lo contrario, la hormona tiroidea produce demasiada hormona tiroidea, puede ser tanto hormona T4 como T3 o ambas.

Como te hemos mostrado cada una de estas situaciones causa síntomas distintos.

La dieta es un factor muy influyente

¿Cómo puedes identificar si padeces hipertiroidismo?

Una primera pista es tener los niveles excesivamente altos de T4 libre y T3 libre y en consecuencia unos niveles de TSH muy bajos.

Pero una forma de confirmarlo es revisando los anticuerpos tiroideos como TSI y TrAb.

El TSI (inmunoglobulina estimulante de la tiroides) mide la cantidad de inmunoglobulina en sangre.

EL TrAb son los anticuerpos del receptor de tirotropina. (Este parámetro para los médicos es bastante concluyente para el diagnóstico de Graves).

¿Influyen los factores genéticos en el hipertiroidismo?

Investigadores encontraron que los genes que controlan la muerte celular, conocida como apoptosis en las células tiroideas estaban activos por más tiempo en personas que padecían enfermedad de Graves (1).

Esta situación generaba más vulnerabilidad al ataque del sistema inmunológico.

En otros estudios de pacientes con enfermedad de Graves se encontró que el gen que controla la absorción y el transporte de vitamina D era defectuoso (2).

Es por este motivo que personas que padecen hipertiroidismo tienen los niveles de vitamina D bajos.

Causa ambiental en el hipertiroidismo

Algunos agentes ambientales pueden potenciar el desarrollo de Graves que da lugar a hipertiroidismo.

La mayoría de los investigadores concluyeron hace mucho tiempo que el estrés es un factor claro en el inicio de la enfermedad de Graves.

Pero también pueden influir, alérgenos, niveles bajos de selenio y niveles excesivos de yodo, estrógenos, etc. podrían ser los más comunes.

Nutrientes que pueden ayudar en el hipertiroidismo

Se ha descubierto que el selenio, mejora los resultados de salud de la enfermedad de Graves y reduce la incidencia de tiroiditis posparto cuando se toma durante el embarazo (3)(4).

Los estudios epidemiológicos han relacionado un mayor riesgo de tiroiditis autoinmune, enfermedad de Graves y bocio con un nivel bajo de selenio.

La glándula tiroides contiene la mayor cantidad de selenio en nuestro cuerpo y es esencial para que la glándula tiroides produzca T3.

Los alimentos con mayor selenio son:

Las nueces de Brasil y los mariscos contienen altos niveles de selenio y, de hecho, los mariscos son los alimentos más ricos en selenoproteínas.

Las hormonas tiroideas se metabolizan por diferentes vías: glucuronidación, sulfatación y desyodación, siendo esta última la más importante.

Existen tres enzimas que catalizan la desyodación, denominadas yodotironina desyodasas tipo 1 (D1), tipo 2 (D2) y tipo 3 (D3).

La característica más notable de las tres yodotironina desyodasas es que son selenoproteínas, es decir, contienen un residuo de selenocisteína en el centro de la secuencia de aminoácidos.

Conclusión: 

Nuestra recomendación como nutricionista zaragoza , acuérdate de comer nueces de Brasil y mariscos para una buena salud tiroidea.

Hasta pronto.

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